Bibliography for 2010 Genteel Arts Conference

 Aiken, Charlotte Rankin, Millinery. New York: Ronald, 1922.

Arthurs Home Magazine, 1860

Bailey, J. R. “The Struggle for Survival in the Coventry Ribbon and Watch Trades, 1865 – 1914.” Stanford:

Beckmann, Johann. A History of Inventions, Discoveries, and Origins. Trans. William Johnston. London: Bohn, 1846.

Boyd, Andrew. Boyd’s New York State Business Directory and Gazetteer. Syracuse: 1870.

Brockett, L. P. Md.. The Silk Industry in America; A History: Prepared for the Centennial Exposition. New York: Nesbitt, 1876.

Brockett, L. P., A History: Prepared for the Centennial Exposition. New York: Nesbitt, 1876.

Brockett, L. P., The Silk Industry in America – A History Prepared for the Centennial Exposition. New York: Nesbitt, 1876.

Census for the State of New York, for 1855. New York, 1856.

Chittick, James, Silk Manufacturing and Its Problems.  New York: Chittick, 1913.

Cole, George,  A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods, and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: Conkey, 1892.

Cowdin, Elliot C. Report to the Department of State on Silk and Silk Manufactures. Washington: 1868.

Cowdin, Elliot C. Reports of the United States Commissioners to the Paris Universal Exposition, 1867. Report on Silk and Silk Manufactures. Washington: Government Printing Office, 1868.

Cowdin, Elliot. Paris Universal Exposition, 1867. Reports of the United States Commissioners; Report on Silk and Silk Manufacture. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1868.

Cowdin, Elliot. Report to the Department of State on Silk and Silk Manufactures. Washington, D.C.: 1868.

Davidson, Mary M. Silk: Its History and Manufacture. Junction City, Kansas: Wadleigh, 1885.

Davidson, Mary M.,  Silk: Its History and Manufacture, From the Earliest Ages to the Present Time. Junction City, Kansas: Wadleigh, 1885.

Fourth Annual Report of The Silk Association of America. New York: Nesbitt, 1876.

Freedley, Edwin Troxell. Philadelphia and its Manufactures. 1857.

Freedley, Edwin, T., Philadelphia and its Manufactures: A Hand-Book. Philadelphi: Young, 1858.

Garbutt Store Ledgers.1850-1870. Wheatland Reading Room.

Gazetteer and Biographical Record of Genesee County, N.Y., 1788-1890 By Frederick W. Beers, Published by J.W. Vose & Co., 1890

Gazetteer and Business Directory of Monroe County, N. Y. for 1869- 70.

Gazetteer and Business Directory of Ontario County, N.Y. Syracuse: Hamilton Child, 1867.

Godey’s Lady’s Book 1852

Harstmann, W. J. United States Patent for Narrow Ware – Patent #19,698; patented March 23, 1858.

Hickling, W., The History of Coventry. Coventry: Hickling, 1846.

Howell, Mrs. M. J. The Handbook of Millinery. London: Simpkin, 1847.

Howell, Mrs. M. J.. The Hand-book or Millinery. London: Simpkin, Marshall, & Co. 1847.

Kennedy, Joseph C.G. Manufacturing Census of the United States in 1860. Washington, D.C.: 1861.  

Kettell, Thomas P. Ed., The United States Economist, Dry Goods Reporter. New York: Kettell, 1854.

Knight, Charles, ed., Arts and Sciences. London: Bradbury, 1868.

Knight, Charles, Knowledge is Power: A View of the Productive Forces of Modern Society. Boston: Gould & Lincoln, 1856.

Leslie, Eliza. Miss Leslie’s Lady’s House-book. Philadelphia: Hart, 1850.

Lilly, A. T., The Silk Industry of The United States: From 1766 to 1874.  New York: Jenkins & Thomas, 1882.

New gazetteer and business directory, for Livingston county, N.Y., for 1868 G. Emmet Stetson Geneva, N.Y.: R.L. Adams & son, printers 1868.

 

Official Descriptive and Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition of the Works of Industry of all Nations, 1851 Great Britain

Otis, Belle, The Diary of a Milliner. New York: Hurd & Houghton. 1867.

Patents for Inventions. Abridgements of Specifications Relating to Wearing Apparel, Division 1, Head Coverings, A.D. 1637-1866. London: Office of the Commissioners of Patents for Inventions, 1874.

Penny, Virginia. The Employments of Women: A Cyclopaedia of Woman’s Work.

Perry, Lorind PhD. Millinery as a Trade for Women. Women’s Educational and Industrial Union. Longmans, Green and Company: Boston, 1916.

“Ribbon Manufacture” Dictionary of Manufactures, Mining, Machinery and the Industrial Arts. George Dodd, ed. 1869.

Ripley, George and Charles A. Dana, eds. The New American Cyclopaedia: A Popular Dictionary of General Knowledge. Voumel XIV. New York: Appleton, 1862.

Stephens, Ann S. and Charles Peterson, eds., Ladies National Magazine. Philadelphia: Peterson, 1844.

The Anglo-American Magazine. Toronto: Maclear, 1854

The Draper and Clothier: A Book of General Information for All Traders in and Purchasers of Textile Fabrics, Vol II. LondonL: Houlston and Wright, 1861.

The Ladies’ Companion and Monthly Magazine.  London: Rogerson & Tuxford, 1855-1865.

The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. London: Knight, 1841.

The Silk Industry in America

“Silk and Silk Manufacturers” Manufacturer and Builder.  July 1, 1875.

“The Silk Manufacture of the United States” Manufacturer and Builder. March 1, 1870.

The Southern Business Directory. Charleston: Walker & James, 1854.

The United States Magazine. New York: Emerson, 1857. 

The Useful Arts Employed in the Production of Clothing. London: Parker, 1851.

The Useful Arts Employed in the Production of Clothing. London: Parker, 1851.

The What-Not; or Ladies’ Handy-Book. London: Kent, 1863.

Thompson, Eliza B., Silk. New York: Ronald, 1922.

Thompson, Eliza B.. Silk. Ronald Press Company: New York, 1922.

Thornwell, Emily. The Lady’s Guide to Perfect Gentility. New York: Derby & Jackson, 1856.

Townsend, Virginia and T.S. Arthur, eds., The Lady’s Home Magazine. Philadelpia: Arthur, 1858-1860.

Van Kleeck, Mary, A Seasonal Industry: A Study of the Millinery Trade in New York. New York: Russell Sage, MCMXVII 1917.

Van Kleeck, Mary. A Seasonal Industry: A Study of the Millinery Trade in New York. Russell Sage Foundation: New York, 1917.

Wheatland Store Ledgers. 1850-1870. Wheatland reading room.

Wyatt, M. Digby. The Industrial Arts of the Nineteenth Century: A Series of Illustrations of the Choicest Specimens Produced by Every Nation, at the Great Exhibition of Works of Industry, 1851. London: Day, 1853. (NYPL)

Wychoff, William, Eighth Annual Report of the Silk Association of America. New York: 1880.

Wychoff, William, Silk Goods Directory. New York: 1880.

Wychoff, William, Silk Goods Directory. New York: 1887.

Wychoff, William, Silk Manufacture in the United States.  New York: 1883.

Wychoff, William, The Silk Goods of America: A Brief Account of the Recent Improvements and Advances of Silk Manufacture in the United States. New York: 1880.

Wyckoff, William C. American Silk Manufacture. New York & Trenton, NJ: Murphy Pub. Co1883.

Wyckoff, William C. American Silk Manufacture. New York & Trenton, NJ: Murphy Pub. Co1887.

Wyckoff, William, American Silk Manufacture. New York: 1887.

 

Image Collections Consulted/Reviewed

 


Museum Collections

Big Springs Museum

Boston Museum of Fine Arts

Bowes Museum

Genesee Country Village & Museum

Kent State

Manchester Galleries

Metropolitan Museum of Art

San Francisco FAM

Tate Museum

Victoria and Albert Museum

 


Private Collections

Pam Robles

Elizabeth Topping

K Krewer

Jeannie Rucker  &Heather King

Vivian Murphy

Timely Tresses

Amy McKinney

Bath Antiques

Anna Allen – The Graceful Lady

Karen Augusta

Kay Gnagey

Terri Conley


 

 

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Additional Helpful Silk Definitions from 1851

(The Useful Arts Employed in the Production of Clothing. London: Parker, 1851.)

Brocade . In the early part of the last century a favourite but costly stuff for dresses was formed of gold, silver, and silken threads, enriched with flowered ornaments of the same materials: this was called brocade. At the present day, however, all stuffs, grograms, satins, taffetas, and lustrings are called brocades, if they are adorned with flowers or other figures.

Damask is a term generally applied, not so much to the weaving of threads of different colours, as to the formation of a pattern by peculiar mode of weaving threads of the same colour. Table-cloths present a beautiful instance of this in linen; and the furniture employed frequently for beds, windows, sofas, and chairs, illustrates the same peculiarity in silk. Such fabrics are not much used at the present day for ladies’ dresses.

Gauze is a material in which the smallest quantity of silk is employed for a given size of woven fabric. This is effected by having very perceptible interstices between the threads; and as these interstices would much weaken the gauze if woven in the usual way, the threads are, by a peculiar arrangement of the loom, made to cross and loop over each other, something like the threads of a net. This entwining of the threads may be easily seen on looking at a piece of gauze.

Bombazine  is a mixture of silk and worsted: the former in the warp, and the later in the weft. Originally these were made only black, and used for mourning; but at the present day they are woven of a grayish colour, and afterwards dyed to any other that may be desired. The manufacture has been almost wholly removed from Spitalfields to Norwich.

Poplin and Lustre  are the names of two other kinds of goods in which silk and worsted are combined; but the proportion of silk is larger than in bombazine. Norwich shawls have within a few years risen to great celebrity: They are composed of silk mixed either with cotton or with worsted.

Persian, sarsenet, Gros-de-Naples, ducape, &c., are the names of many varieties of silk goods which do not differ in the mode of manufacture, but in the quality or quantity of the material used in them. Persian is a very inferior and flimsy kind of silk used for the commonest purposes where strength is not required. Sarsenet is somewhat stouter, and used for better purposes. Gros-de-Naples is much superior to both of them, being made with better silk, and a greater number of threads being woven in a given space. Ducape is also a stout silk, but of a softer texture than Gros-de-Naples.

Levantine is a stout twilled silk. Gros-des-Indes is a silk of which the weft is composed alternately of different colours, so that the material appears striped in the direction of the width.

Satin is a twilled silk, which owes it peculiar lustre to the number of threads of warp which are passed over by the weft, before it passes under one of them: sometimes the thread passes over as many as eight warp-threads before it interlaces, and thereby presents a glossy surface to the eye. When it comes out of the loom, satin frequently presents a slight degree of roughness or flossiness, on account of the comparative infrequency of the interlacings of the weft with the warp. To remove this, the satin is passed between heated rollers, by which the face is smoothed down, and the surface receives that beautiful lustre which belongs so peculiarly to satin.

 

Types of 19th Century Ribbons

Chine  – A fancy ribbon where figures are painted or printed on the warp while it is on the ribbon.

Clouding –  A coloring technique used to vary the color in a ribbon. This coloring technique takes place at the thread dying stage. “The silk, already warped, is tied up and wound closely round with packthread at regular intervals of more or less than an inch, so that the intermediate spaces only are penetrated by the dye.”

Damask –  Ribbons with woven designs. These can be geometrical or floral frequently using combinations of leaves, sprigs and flowers. “In superior French ribbons groups and wreathes of flowers are executed with the richness and variety of hand-embroidery. The French are continually introducing novelties in colouring and in texture. In one of recent appearance the ribbon is laid over with a slight covering like crape, by means of a warp of hard-silk woven in loosely over the other; in another ribbon is made by stamping to assume the appearance of lace.”

Double Lisse – Double warp ribbons. These were once considered the best ribbon. Made in Tours, France in the 1700s. (The Penny Encylcopedia )

Ferrets – Ribbons which are coarse and narrow, shot with cotton. They are used for shoe-strings and bindings.

Floret Gauzes and Taffeties – Light ribbons made with organzine warp and marabout weft. In other words, the warp of a sarsenet ribbon and the weft of a gauze ribbon.

Garnitures – “French fancy ribbons are generally made and sold in garnitures, that is a broad and narrow piece taken together of the same pattern.” (The Penny Encyclopedia)

Galloons and Doubles  – Ribbons which are strong and thick. These were used for bindings and shoe strings. Galloons are the narrower ribbons. Doubles are the broader ribbons.

Gauze – Transparent ribbons made with a fine hard-twisted silk thread called marabout woven in a plain weave. Finer gauzes have over 80 threads per inch. “The plain gauze ribbons made at Coventry called China gauzes are chiefly those used for mourning – white, black and lavender, with satin or ground stripes.” (see http://www.met.org # C.I.38.23.167)

Grogram – “By grogram (French gros-grains) is meant a variation of the texture, caused by the warp-threads passing over two of the shoots at once, taking up one only: this often finishes the edges of a ribbon.” 1844, The Penny Cyclopaedia.

Loves – A gauze like ribbon made organzine and hard dyed weft. These are considered an inferior gauze.

Lutestring –  Plain weave ribbons with regular alteration of warp and weft. Generally wider than 12d (1 7/12 inches ) and “in general of stouter make.” These are the most common ribbons found

Moiré   – A coloring technique more often seen on gros grain ribbons. This is the French term for clouded or watered silks. “The goods are woven in what the Lyons weaves call en jumelle, that is, in double widths, two pieces being woven together. This is necessary in order to obtain the bold waterings or moirage, which process depends not only on the quality of the silk, but greatly in the way in which they are folded when subjected to the enormous pressure in watering. When the pieces are being folded, care is taken that the grains of one piece shall fall into the cavities of the other, and vice versa, for if they ride one across the other the watering will be spoiled… After being properly folded the silk to be moiré d is wetted slightly, and then submitted to an enormous pressure, generally in hydraulic machine, The pressure (generally from 80 to 100 tons per piece) applied on the material being uneven, the grain is flattened in the parts desired and the result resembles waves, or moisture drawn into curious lines..” (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)

Moiré  Antique or Long Moiré  ­– A coloring technique using an engraved brass roller paired with a plain surface. The ribbon is passed under the engraved roller under great pressure. The coloring is “more scattered, longer and in finer, but not less effective, lines” than other moiré techniques. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)Purl or Pearl Edge –  A type of ribbon edge of small, fine loops. This effect is created by weaving the edge over horse-hairs which are later removed.

Petershams or Pads – Stout thick ribbons used for the waist. Possibly derived from the French padou “a course ribbon used by tailors, made of linen and silk, often stiffened by gum”

Picot  – A type of edge of a ribbon comprised of small loops forming the ornament. The picot edge is larger and thicker than a purl edge. The edge may also have small stitches of knots. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)

Ruban Anglois – Type of ribbon with fine quality organzine warp and China shoot. They were light in texture. (The Penny Encyclopedia)

Sarsenet –  Plain weave ribbons with regular alteration of warp and weft. Generally wider than 12d (1 7/12 inches ) and “in general of stouter make.” These are the most common ribbons found.

Satin – Ribbons with a glossy appearance. The warp is primarily seen from the surface as it passes over the weft. The type of satin is determined by the number of times the shoot/weft crosses the warp, such as in 5-lisse satin the warp is crossed once every 5 times. “The French satins are lighter in make than the English, but they have a peculiar richness and lustre, owing to their superior silk. French ribbons in general have less weight of silk than the English.”

Scallops – A type of ribbon edge with a scalloped edge. “. The shoot in this case stops short of the edge of the ribbon, catching in an additional thread of silk, sometimes of a different colour, which it draws in in its place, and which is delivered from a bobbin at the back of the loom, and is in a manner darned into the ground of the ribbon.”

Shot  – A ribbon with variation in colouring where the warp and weft are different colors.

Taffetas – A plain weave ribbon with about 51 threads per inch.

Velveteen – A later 19th century ribbon which technically is not a ribbon as it does not have two salvage edges. Velveteen ribbons are cut in strips from velveteen yardage. These “ribbons” are sized to prevent raveling. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)

Watered  or Watering  – A coloring technique where a pair of woven ribbons is passed between two rollers. One of the rollers is heated creating irregular pressure as the ribbons are pressed against each other. This produces a wavy appearance in the coloring. The ribbon can also be wet when passed through the rollers. “The air in trying to effect its escape, drives before it the moisture, and hence causes the appearance of the curiously tortuous lines, resembling waves. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)
Additional Resources 

Anatomy of a Ribbon

“Ribbon. A strip of fine fabric, as silk, satin, or velvet, having two selvages.” (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892. Page 297)

Ribbon Weave ImageRibbons are woven similarly to silk fabric. Warp threads run the length of the ribbon. Weft threads run the width of the ribbon. In ribbons, the warp is also be called organzine; the weft is called tram. Marabout is used for gauzes. It is from fine white silk which has not had the gum boiled off.

The selvage is the edge of the ribbon. This can be plain or fancy

A ribbon’s appearance is determined by a number of factors:

  • The twist and thickness of the warp
  • The twist and thickness of the weft
  • The type of weave
  • The way the edge is woven
  • The finishing and blocking

 

Finishing a ribbon includes a process to smooth and stiffen them. For example “Satins are soft and flossy when taken out of  the loom; to smooth and stiffen them, they are calendered, or pressed between heated steel cylinders, and afterwards dressed, or passed over a small cylinder covered with flannel, which is moistened with a size made from buffalo hides, and then over a large one of heated steel. Gauzes also are dressed, and sometimes even lutestrings. The French goods are in general better dressed than the English.”

Notable Ribbon Manufacturers

Domestically manufactured ribbons

A partial list of silk manufactures producing ribbons:

  • [name yet unknown] in Baltimore – First manufacture of silk ribbons in 1829
  • Mansfield Silk Company, Mansfield, Connecticut – Company established 1827/8.
  • Messrs. Horstmann and Sons  in Philadelphia – Son of William Horstmann from Germany began manufacturing narrow goods on Jacquard looms in 1837/8.
  • Thomas C. McRae & Co in New York City – produced silk ribbons from 1852 to 1866. Produced approx. $15,000 worth of ribbons in 1855. (“The State census of New York, for the same year [1855]…. And two ribbon mills, whose product was the value of $15,900, all but $900 of which was the product of one mill in the city.)
  • The New England Silk Company in Dedham, Massachusetts –
  • ________ Boston, Massachusetts – Had a ribbon loom which wove 12 ribbons at one time run by one person.
  • Messieurs Plymton, Stevenson and Company in West Newton, Connecticut – Company possibly connected to one in Boston at the same time. They produced their ribbon on a braid-loom with a Jacquard attachment. In 1860, they produced $118,000 worth of fancy silk goods. In 1855 they produced $38,000 worth of ribbons and dress trimmings.
  • Phoenix Silk Manufacturing Company in Paterson, New Jersey – Began by Mr. Tilt in 1862/3
  • Dexter, Lambert, & Co. – organized in Boston in 1855. Moved to Paterson, New Jersey 1876.
  • Samuel Bertchy & Co. in New York. – Established 1856, making narrow goods. Began making millinery ribbons in 1866.
  • Towles, Tallerman & Co. in Baltimore, Maryland – Established in 1861 making ribbons. Became the Monumental Silk Works and Silk Manufacturing Company after 1870. Mill burned in 1873.
  • Strange & Brother in Paterson, New Jersey – Established in 1863. Became one of the largest silk ribbon manufactures in the 1870s.
  • Werner Itschner & Co. in Philadelphia – Began ribbon manufacture in 1864. Moved to Germantown in 1865.

 

Foreign manufactured ribbons

  • Coventry, England – The next largest producer in silk ribbon following the US, according to Cowdin is England. “Then comes England, whose trade in Continental silk fabrics has greatly augmented since the last treaty of commerce with France.”
  • Crenfeld & Elberfeld,  Prussia – Several manufactures in that area.
  • St. Etienne (Loire) France – While Lyons, France seems to be that country’s center for silk manufacture, St. Etienne is the ribbon manufacturing center.
  • The Canton of Bale, Switzerland (Bale is French; Basel or Basle is English.
  • Guabwiller, Alsace – “It was at Guabwiller, in Alsace, that steam was first employed in the manufacture of ribbons. One may see there a model ribbon factory, which employs 600 persons, and contains 200 looms, driven by a steam engine of 30 horse power.” (Elliot C. Cowdin Report to the Department of State on Silk and Silk Manufactures)