Understanding the Ribbon Bavolet

Straw bonnet from the Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village

Straw bonnet from the Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village

~~~This is one of the many wonderful bonnets found in the Susan Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village. (To see some of their ribbons, be sure to hop over to the Millinery Ribbon Blog.)   ~~~ This straw bonnet shows a great many things from the over-all spoon bonnet shape to the shape of the cheektabs to the fineness of the straw. I would like us to look at the bavolet today. We also know the bavolet as the “curtain.”  The bavolet is a fabric or ribbon pleated into the back neckline edge of a bonnet. This can resemble a flounce in that the top is drawn in while the lower edge floats or flares out. The bavolet can, but does not need to be a single material as we see here. It can be made of layers of silk, net and lace. Some high-end fashion plates show beading as well. (Honestly, I don’t think I could handle beads dangling on my neck.)

 *Please see http://mfas3.s3.amazonaws.com/objects/SC118406.jpg

~~~The construction seams on the underside are covered by a net. Net is used to give the silk bavolet more body and fullness. It is sewn so the net is not seen from the outside and pleated into the bavolet.  The bavolet reaches all the way around the back of the bonnet (the tip) and up along the sides while the lower edge connects to the cheektabs.

*The section of ribbon that decorates the exterior of the bonnet can be on the grain or on the bias. The ties need to be on the grain. To see a nice example of the ribbon decorating over the top of the bonnet, see this MFA example that happens to have the bavolet on the grain. Notice how the bavolet flops more than floats.

(For some reason WP is losing my paragraph formating right now. I hope the ~~~ make this a little easier to read.)

Shattering Silk – Why Not to Use Antique Silk Ribbon

Since our 21st century selection of silk ribbon is a teeny, tiny fraction of what it was in the 19th century, all to often we look to antique and vintage ribbon for embellishing our millinery. The silk florals, stripes, plaids, damasks, moires, pretty colors…. are all too tempting. They are just so pretty.

Well…. there can be a huge drawback to using antique or vintage ribbon for reproduction millinery.

wpid-2015-10-03-14.32.40.jpg.jpegAntique and vintage silk ribbons can be fragile. Even if they appear to be in strong shape, they can still be easily damaged. This black ribbon to the right is an example of this. This is 1″ ribbon on one of my personal winter bonnets. This is after the first wearing. The ribbon was tied in the morning when I left the house. It was not untied/retied at all through the day. This is how it looked when I took it off in the afternoon. This ribbon was part of an order of several black ribbons when I was out of my regular silk ribbon and my ribbon supplier was also out of ribbon. The ribbon appeared strong, being soft and supple. Obviously, this was not the case.

Bad for me. Good for you because this is a good chance to show what can happen.

The fractures or splits on this ribbon run the length of the ribbon. This means the weft threads are what broke. The weft threads, those running across the ribbon, are usually less strong than the weft threads that run the length of the ribbon. These fractures are along the lines where the ribbon folded/wrinkled in the bow. So, these fractures make sense. (This is also good to see because it can be compared to future observations of silk fractures. These would occur from the wearing. Other fractures can occur during the storing.)

Now, imagine this happening with a wider ribbon. This narrow ribbon only cost a few dollars a yard. A wider ribbon can cost $10, $20, even $50 a yard. Multiplied out by 2 to 5 yards going on a bonnet…. there would be lots of tears. I had a client who loved this wide green silk ribbon. It looked quite lovely. When it arrived, it was obviously quite dry and brittle. Using the ribbon would have been a disaster.

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imageHere is another example I picked up at an estate sale for the ribbon collection. It is a brilliant green silk in a five inch width. This ribbon appears to be in nice shape on the roll. But, just the pressure of a finger nail can break the fibers like a razor blade. Notice how this break is across the ribbon. This means I am breaking the warp threads, which should be the stronger fibers. imageThis ribbon, assuming it survived being attached to the bonnet (which I doubt it would) would shatter in the wearer’s hands.

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This pale blue silk is another example. this two inch wide ribbon appears to have a nice sheen. It is soft to the touch. It does not feel dry or have that weird crisped feel some aged ribbons can have.

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Yet, it is still quite fragile. This break cuts across both the warp and weft threads.The break formed just from pressure in that area.

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Of course, not using antique and vintage silk ribbons leaves us with vintage blends, narrower modern silk ribbons and wider ribbons in modern fibers. I highly recommend feeling some orginal ribbons when you can. Also, feel the different qualities of modern an newer vintage ribbons so you can have a tactile knowledge of what is available and how it compares to originals.

Along the Edge

Let’s talk a little about the edges of ribbons.

In the 19th century, the edge of a ribbon could be straight like a selvage or it could be decorative. Decorative edges were created in the weaving process. Often, this was done with the use of wires that were later removed.

In this comparative image, we can see several different edges to 19th century ribbons. The three left most ribbons have a straight edge. The red and cream in the center have a picot edge, in this case set in groupings. The two to right most are scallop edges.

Ribbon Edges

Picot  – A type of edge of a ribbon comprised of small loops forming the ornament. The picot edge is larger and thicker than a purl edge. The edge may also have small stitches of knots. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)

Scallops – A type of ribbon edge with a scalloped edge. “. The shoot in this case stops short of the edge of the ribbon, catching in an additional thread of silk, sometimes of a different colour, which it draws in in its place, and which is delivered from a bobbin at the back of the loom, and is in a manner darned into the ground of the ribbon.”

Here are some examples of a picot edge from the MFA (click on the thumbnail to see the ribbon at the museum.):

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Examples of a scallop edge:

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Other edges:

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Guest Ribbons – From the Collection of Kelly Hinson #2

Here are a few more of Kelly’s ribbons.

This photo of a 2″ deep purple ribbon is a nice shot for showing the front and back of a single face satin ribbon. Notice how smooth the left is and the dull flatness of the right. The warp treads float on the front of the ribbon creating the smooth, shiny surface. This is a single face. A double face will have the warp threads float on the front and the back. If you’ve read the satin ribbon comparison page, you know that lower quality satins have threads that float a longer distance that can snag.

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

When I first looked at this ribbon, I thought it was a nice example of a floral taffeta ribbon with satin stripes. Then I noticed something going on with the close-up of the piecing Kelly took. Look at the satin stripes. This length was pieced so that the right side faced on way on one end and the other way on the other end. Confused? In the photo, on the top, the front of the satin stripes are on the top while on the bottom the back of the satin stripes are on top.

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

This plaid has question marks around it in my head. It is something about the texture. I have to ponder before I say more.

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Guest Ribbons – From the Collection of Kelly Hinson #1

This past summer, Kelly was incredibly lucky to find a beautiful assortment of ribbons in a suitcase. She was at a ‘junk’ sale in search of a tablecloth when she happened upon a suitcase which she bought unopened. Getting it home, she discovered it was full of ribbons, many lengths in pairs suggesting their use for millinery. These ribbons appear to be untouched for decades and in pretty decent shape.

Kelly shared full length photo with me. I’m sharing close-up photos so we can focus on the qualities of each. That said, there are a few that I don’t know what they are exactly.

These first three ribbons are taffeta. The deep blue taffeta appears as if the selvage edge may have a tiny satin weave.

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Here we have a variation we see in a taffeta weave. We often use the word ombre. For ribbons, the techniques were the watered or clouded effect. These two techniques are different ways of developing the color of ribbon.

Clouding –  A coloring technique used to vary the color in a ribbon. This coloring technique takes place at the thread dying stage. “The silk, already warped, is tied up and wound closely round with packthread at regular intervals of more or less than an inch, so that the intermediate spaces only are penetrated by the dye.”

Watered  or Watering  – A coloring technique where a pair of woven ribbons is passed between two rollers. One of the rollers is heated creating irregular pressure as the ribbons are pressed against each other. This produces a wavy appearance in the coloring. The ribbon can also be wet when passed through the rollers. “The air in trying to effect its escape, drives before it the moisture, and hence causes the appearance of the curiously tortuous lines, resembling waves. (Cole, George S.. A Complete Dictionary of Dry Goods and History of Silk, Cotton, Linen, Wool and other Fibrous Substances. Chicago: W. B. Conney,1892)

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

This is another taffeta ribbon, a shot taffeta, with velvet stripes along each edge. Mixing weaves was not unusual in 19th century ribbons. We often see satin stripes in taffeta ribbons.

Shot  – A ribbon with variation in colouring where the warp and weft are different colors.

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Occasionally, I hear people ask about sheer ribbons. Yes, they did have sheer ribbons in the 19th century. Kelly has two examples that demonstrate how these ribbons were sheer but still had a firm body.

Gauze – Transparent ribbons made with a fine hard-twisted silk thread called marabout woven in a plain weave. Finer gauzes have over 80 threads per inch. “The plain gauze ribbons made at Coventry called China gauzes are chiefly those used for mourning – white, black and lavender, with satin or ground stripes.” (see http://www.met.org # C.I.38.23.167)

Floret Gauzes and Taffeties – Light ribbons made with organzine warp and marabout weft. In other words, the warp of a sarsenet ribbon and the weft of a gauze ribbon.

White sheer with looser weave unknown cropped

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

White organza sheer cropped

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Kelly has s nice example of a cream damask with a pretty rose design. Notice how the roses are spaced.

Damask –  Ribbons with woven designs. These can be geometrical or floral frequently using combinations of leaves, sprigs and flowers. “In superior French ribbons groups and wreathes of flowers are executed with the richness and variety of hand-embroidery. The French are continually introducing novelties in colouring and in texture. In one of recent appearance the ribbon is laid over with a slight covering like crape, by means of a warp of hard-silk woven in loosely over the other; in another ribbon is made by stamping to assume the appearance of lace.”

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Kelly had some mystery ribbons. First is this woven design that really reads newer to me. But, if it is newer, why was it in this set?

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

The next mysterious ribbon that has peaked my curiosity is this green ribbon – It may have been put through a crimper. But, if it was a crimper, wouldn’t that satin selvage be crimped too???

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

From the Collection of Kelly Hinson

Images Restored!

I think I managed to mostly fix my deleting oops. The two blogs should have their images independently now. You will see a couple notes about images I am still trying to find. These are mostly the scans that were done on Dad’s really nice scanner that let me see the threads in the ribbons. (*pout*)

Now, I can go forward with all those posts I’ve been wanting to get to, including some guest ribbons.

An Assortment of Ribbons

Ribbons from the Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village

Ribbons from the Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village

Among the extensive Susan Greene Collection at the Genesee Country Village, we can find many millinery ribbons.This set of ribbons samples what can be found. Left to right, we have a floral center on white ground with pink savages, a taffeta stripe, an off white ribbon with greens and red woven stripes (I need to go back to see whether this is a satin or taffeta weave), a fabulous green and white ribbon showing plaid and moire sections separated by Jacquard woven stripes which are raised, a striped taffeta ribbon with satin stripes running across the ribbon.